The full wording is available from the authors upon request. Mothers generally had more positive expectations of the outcomes of talking to their children about sexual activity than fathers did. With daughters, more mothers than fathers thought that their daughters would understand the benefits of waiting, would listen, and would not think the parent was being judgmental or hypocritical.
The main feminist motivation for making this distinction was to counter biological determinism or the view that biology is destiny. A typical example of a biological determinist view is that of Geddes and Thompson who, inargued that social, psychological and behavioural traits were caused by metabolic state.
It would be inappropriate to grant women political rights, as they are simply not suited to have those rights; it would also be futile since women due to their biology would simply not be interested in exercising their political rights.
To counter this kind of biological determinism, feminists have argued that behavioural and psychological differences have social, rather than biological, causes. Commonly observed behavioural traits associated with women and men, then, are not caused by anatomy or chromosomes.
Rather, they are culturally learned or acquired. Although biological determinism of the kind endorsed by Geddes and Thompson is nowadays uncommon, the idea that behavioural and psychological differences between women and men have biological causes has not disappeared.
In the s, sex differences were used to argue that women should not become airline pilots since they will be hormonally unstable once a month and, therefore, unable to perform their duties as well as men Rogers More recently, differences in male and female brains have been said to explain behavioural differences; in particular, the anatomy of corpus callosum, a bundle of nerves that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres, is thought to be responsible for various psychological and behavioural differences.
Anne Fausto-Sterling has questioned the idea that differences in corpus callosums cause behavioural and psychological differences. First, the corpus callosum is a highly variable piece of anatomy; as a result, generalisations about its size, shape and thickness that hold for women and men in general should be viewed with caution.
Second, differences in adult human corpus callosums are not found in infants; this may suggest that physical brain differences actually develop as responses to differential treatment. Third, given that visual-spatial skills like map reading can be improved by practice, even if women and men's corpus callosums differ, this does not make the resulting behavioural differences immutable.
Fausto-Sterling b, chapter 5. Psychologists writing on transsexuality were the first to employ gender terminology in this sense. Although by and large a person's sex and gender complemented each other, separating out these terms seemed to make theoretical sense allowing Stoller to explain the phenomenon of transsexuality: Along with psychologists like Stoller, feminists found it useful to distinguish sex and gender.
This enabled them to argue that many differences between women and men were socially produced and, therefore, changeable. Rubin's thought was that although biological differences are fixed, gender differences are the oppressive results of social interventions that dictate how women and men should behave.
However, since gender is social, it is thought to be mutable and alterable by political and social reform that would ultimately bring an end to women's subordination.
In some earlier interpretations, like Rubin's, sex and gender were thought to complement one another.
That is, according to this interpretation, all humans are either male or female; their sex is fixed. But cultures interpret sexed bodies differently and project different norms on those bodies thereby creating feminine and masculine persons.
Distinguishing sex and gender, however, also enables the two to come apart: So, this group of feminist arguments against biological determinism suggested that gender differences result from cultural practices and social expectations.
Nowadays it is more common to denote this by saying that gender is socially constructed. But which social practices construct gender, what social construction is and what being of a certain gender amounts to are major feminist controversies.
There is no consensus on these issues. See the entry on intersections between analytic and continental feminism for more on different ways to understand gender. Masculinity and femininity are thought to be products of nurture or how individuals are brought up.
They are causally constructed Haslanger And the mechanism of construction is social learning. Feminine and masculine gender-norms, however, are problematic in that gendered behaviour conveniently fits with and reinforces women's subordination so that women are socialised into subordinate social roles:Sexuality.
It’s a pretty sexy word in itself, and its meaning has evolved to mean different things over time. Sexuality is a collection of our sexual traits, and it’s actually a really important part of how we express ourselves as human beings. A key inquiry anthropologists seek to answer is the distinction between and role of sex, gender, and sexuality within each separate culture.
Y The Last Man and other ethnographic texts connect culture, its language, and the formation of gender, sex, and sexuality roles in any given society. Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender First published Mon May 12, ; substantive revision Wed Oct 25, Feminism is said to be the movement to end women's oppression (hooks , 26).
Dec 14, · The gender of the child also made a difference in parent-child communications about sex. In terms of their communication about sexual topics, mothers talked more with daughters than with sons about numerous topics (see Table Table3).
3). Fathers talked with daughters more than with sons about just one topic: dating and relationships (58% of. Motherhood and Sexuality in Flaubert's Madame Bovary Since Gustave Flaubert's trial in for offending public "moral sensibilities," his novel Madame Bovary has been associated with tensions between bourgeois convention and women's sexuality.
Gender and Sexuality in Avarez' Daughter of Invention and Cofer's The Changeling Essay Cofer’s poem “The Changeling,” women were restricted of their true identities and their voices were silenced by the Ppallogocentric order.