Similarly, there is a range of temperatures at which a plant will produce seed. Outside of this range, the plant will not reproduce. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. The Earth's average surface temperature has increased by 1.
Heat stress, droughts, and flooding events may lead to reductions in crop yields and livestock productivity. Areas that are already affected by drought, such as Australia and the Sahel in Africa, will likely experience reductions in water available for irrigation. At lower latitudes, cereal crop yields are projected to decrease.
The greatest decreases in crop yields will likely occur in dry and tropical regions. Increasing ocean temperatures have shifted some marine species to cooler waters outside of their normal range. Fisheries are important for the food supply and economy of many countries. For example, more than 40 million people rely on the fish caught in the Lower Mekong delta in Asia, which is the largest freshwater fishery in the world.
Projected reductions in water flows and increases in sea level may negatively affect water quality and fish species in regions like these, affecting the food supply for communities that depend on these resources. The potential of climate change to affect global food security is important for food producers and consumers in the United States.
Impacts on Water Supply and Quality Areas in Africa currently at risk for a hunger, b natural hazard-related disaster risks, c malaria derived from historical rainfall and temperature data and d epidemics of meningococcal meningitis based on epidemic experience, relative humidity  and land cover.
Semi-arid and arid areas such as the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and northeastern Brazil are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water supply. Over the next century, these areas will likely experience decreases in water resources, especially in areas that are already water-stressed due to droughts, population pressures, and water resource extraction.
The availability of water is strongly related to the amount and timing of runoff and precipitation. As temperatures rise, snowpack is declining in many regions and glaciers are melting at unprecedented rates, making water less available in areas that depend on it from melting snow and glaciers during spring and summer.
Droughts are likely to become more widespread. When it does rain, more precipitation is expected to fall in extreme heavy precipitation events. Increases in heavy precipitation events would not increase water supply, but instead result in increased flooding, except in river basins with large dams able to hold excess water until it is needed.
In Augustrecord monsoon rains flooded significant portions of Pakistan. Twenty percent of the country was underwater as a result of the floods, affecting about 20 million Pakistanis and rendering six million homeless.
In the image fromthe Indus is about 0. In the image, the river is 14 miles wide or more in parts. NASA Click on the image to see a larger version.
Water quality is important for ecosystems, human health and sanitation, agriculture, and other purposes. Increases in temperature, changes in precipitation, sea level rise, and extreme events could diminish water quality in many regions.
Large rainstorms may cause large amounts of pollutants to enter rivers and estuaries, as excess water may overwhelm wastewater systems and natural buffers. Increased pollution as well as increasing water temperatures can cause algal blooms and potentially increase bacteria in water bodies.
In coastal areas and small islands, saltwater from rising sea level and storm surges threaten water supplies. These impacts may require communities to begin treating their water in order to provide safe water resources for human uses.
Impacts on Human Health The risks of climate-sensitive diseases and health impacts can be high in countries that have little capacity to prevent and treat illness.
There are many examples of health impacts related to climate change. Worsened air quality that often accompanies heat waves or wildfires can lead to breathing problems and exacerbate respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Areas of sub-Saharan and West Africa are sensitive to the spread of meningitis, and will be particularly at-risk if droughts become more frequent and severe.
Increases in rainfall and temperature can cause spreading of dengue fever. Diarrheal diseases from contaminated water and food sources are a major concern, particularly for children. These at-risk groups include urban people living in poverty, older adults, young children, traditional societies, subsistence farmers, and coastal populations.
Rural populations, older adults, outdoor workers, and those without access to air conditioning are often the most vulnerable to heat-related illness and death. Impacts on Shelter Climate change affects the migration of people within and between countries around the world. A variety of reasons may force people to migrate into other areas.
These reasons include conflicts, such as ethnic or resource conflicts, degraded ecosystem services, such as lack of viable agricultural land or fresh water, and extreme events, such as flooding, drought, and hurricanes. Extreme events displace many people, especially in areas that do not have the ability or resources to quickly respond or rebuild after disasters.outlines the impact of climate change in four developing country regions: Africa, Asia, Latin America and small agriculture, water resources, human health, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity and coastal zones.
uncertainties about climate change. Warming of the climate . directorate-general for internal policies policy department b: structural and cohesion policies agriculture and rural development research for agri committee - the consequences of climate change for eu agriculture.
follow-up to anticipated regional impacts of climate change in europe Such an analysis is an essential part of any assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture given that grasslands are of high importance for agriculture in temperate and humid regions of Europe and they occupy a large proportion of the landscape area (% of .
Western Europe experienced a general cooling of the climate between the years and and a very cold climate between and that brought dire consequences to its peoples.
The colder weather impacted agriculture, health, economics, social strife, emigration, and even art and literature. •Climate change is already having an impact on agriculture and it is one of the factors contributing to stagnation in wheat yields in parts of Europe despite continued progress in crop breeding •Climate change is expected to continue to affect agriculture in the with effects greatly varying in Europe.
Nov 29, · The integration of these assessments in the global food economy together with projections of future climate change and variability enables evaluation of impacts of climate change on agriculture and provides a basis of prioritizing regional and commodity specific agricultural research for adaptation and mitigation.